Dr.BAI Xue 白雪博士

Assistant Professor

PhD (HKU) 

3400 3694

Positive ageing and subjective well-being
Intergenerational relationships and care arrangement in ageing families
Retirement protection and long-term care policy
Evidence-based practice for health promotion in older adults

My URLs:  


Ageing, Family and Society
Social Policy and Social Care for an Ageing Society
Management in Human Services
Theories of Social Policy

Administrative Position:

Programme leader, BA (Hons) in Applied Ageing Studies and Service Management

Honorary Fellowship:

2015 – present    Visiting Fellow, Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science
2014 – present    Honorary Research Fellow. Sau Po Centre on Ageing. The University of Hong Kong


Selected Publications: 

Refereed Journal Articles (*corresponding author)
Bai, X.* (in press). Development and validation of a multidimensional Intergenerational Relationship Quality Scale for Aging Chinese parents. The Gerontologist 

Bai, X.*, Liu, C., Baladon, L., & Rubio-Valera, M. (2017). Multidimensional determinants of the caregiving burden among Chinese male caregivers of older family members in Hong Kong. Aging and Mental Health, online first doi: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1330872

Bai, X.*, Guo, Y., & Fu, Y.Y. (2017). Self-image and intergenerational relationships as correlates of life satisfaction in Chinese older adults: Will gender make a difference? Ageing and Society. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X17000113

Bai, X.*, Leung, D., Lai, C.K.Y., Chong, A., & Chi, I. (2017). Mediating effect of decline in social activities on urinary incontinence and negative mood: Do sex and marital differences exist? Geriatrics and Gerontology International, online first doi: 10.1111/ggi.12976

Fu, Y.Y., Guo, Y., Bai, X., & Chui, E. (2017). Factors associated with older people’s long-term care needs: A case study adopting the expanded version of the Anderson model in China. BMC Geriatrics, 17(38), 1-13.

Lam, K., Kwan, J., Kwan, C.W., Chong, A.M.L., Lai, C.K.Y., Lou, V.W.Q., Leung, A.Y.M., Liu, J.Y.W., Bai, X., & Chi, I. (2017). Factors associated with the trend of physical and chemical restraint use among long-term care facility residents in Hong Kong: Data from an 11-year observational study. Journal of American Medical Directors Association. online first doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.06.018

Lai, D., Bai, X., & Guo, A. (2017). Incontinence and depressive symptoms in older Chinese women: The mediating effect of social participation. Health and Social Work, 42(2), e94-e101.

Bai, X.* (2016). Alignment or Struggle? Exploring socio-demographic correlates of individual modernity modes in Chinese older people. Ageing and Society, 36(1), 133-159.

Bai, X.*, Hung, K., & Lai, D.W.L. (2016). The role of travel in enhancing life satisfaction among Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. Ageing and Society, online first dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X16000611

Bai, X.*, Lai, D.W.L., & Guo, A. (2016). Ageism and depression: Perceptions of older people as a burden in China. Journal of Social Issues, 72(1), 26-46.

Bai, X.*, Lai, D.W.L., & Chow, N.W.S. (2016). Measuring older adults’ individual modernity: Validation of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity. Sage Open, January-March 2016, 1-13.

Hung, K., Bai, X., & Lu, J-Y. (2016). Understanding travel constraints among the elderly in Hong Kong: A comparative study between the elderly in private and public housing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(7), 1051-1070.

Tse, M.M., Ng, S.S., Lee, P.H., Lai, C., Kwong, E., Liu, J.Y., Yuen, J., Bai, X., & Yeung, S.S. (2016). Play activities program to relieve chronic pain and enhance functional mobility and psychological well-being for frail older adults: A pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(10), 86-88.

Leung, D., Bai, X., Leung, A., Liu, B., & Chi, I. (2015). Prevalence of medication adherence and its associated factors among community-dwelling Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 15(6), 789-796.

Bai, X.* (2014). Images of ageing in society: A literature review. Journal of Population Ageing, 7(3), 231-253.

Bai, X.*, & Chow, N. (2014). A life-course perspective on elderly residential mobility in Southern China: An adaptation of the Amenity Retirement Migration Model. Journal of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 23, 309-324.

Bai, X.*, Ho, D., Fung, K., Tang, L., He, M., Young, D., Ho, F., & Kwok, T. (2014). Effectiveness of a life story work program on older adults with intellectual disabilities. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 1-8.

Bai, X.*, Kwok, T., Chan, N., & Ho, F. (2013). Determinants of job satisfaction in foreign domestic helpers caring for people with dementia in Hong Kong: The role of helpers' adaptation status, job self-efficacy and care recipients' situation. Health and Social Care in the Community, 21(5), 472-479.

Bai, X.*, & Chow, N. (2013). Chinese elders’ self-image and their perceived peer-image: Possibility of self-enhancement bias. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 77(1), 1-16.

Kwok, T., Bai, X., Li, J., Ho, F., & Lee, T. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive training on improving cognitive abilities of Chinese older people with memory complaint: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28 (2), 208-215.

Bai, X.*, Chan, S., & Chow, N. (2012). Validation of Self-Image of Aging Scale for Chinese elders. International Journal of Aging and Human Development74(1), 67-86.

Kwok, T., Bai, X., Chui, M., Lai, C., Ho, D., Ho, F., Woo, J. (2012). Effect of physical restraint reduction on older patients’ hospital length stay. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association13(7), 645-650.

Chow, N., & Bai, X. (2011). Modernization and its impact on Chinese older people’s perception of their own image and status. International Social Work, 54(6), 800-815. 

Book Chapters
Bai, X.*, Yang, S.Y., Wang, F.L., & Knapp, M. (2017). Social support and sense of loneliness in solitary older adults. In T.T. Wu et al. (eds). Lecture Notes on Computer Science (pp.326-330). Springer International Publishing. 

Au, A., Yip, H.M., Chan, W.C, Bai, X., & Tsien, T. (2016). Chapter 6. Ageing and Mental Health: Challenges and Innovations in Hong Kong. Aging and Mental Health: Global Perspectives. Edited by W.W. Li, S.M., Cummings, I. Ponnuswami, & H-J. Park. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Lai, D.W.L., & Bai, X. (2016). Chapter 15. Social Work with Diverse Older Adults. In A.Al-Krenawi, J.R. Graham, & N. Habibov (Ed). Diversity in Social Work in Canada (pp. 345-372). Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press.

Consultancy Reports
Wong, Y.C., Bai, X., Lou. V. Huang, P.M. (2017). Retirement and Care Planning in the Context of Population Ageing in Hong Kong. Report submitted to 2017 Cross Straits Pension System Research Team.

Chui, E., Law, C.K., Bai, X., Chow, E., Dai, D., Lai, D., Ma, C., & Tsien, T. (2017). Elderly Services Programme Plan. Report submitted to Elderly Commission.

Chui, E., Law, C.K., Bai, X., Dai, D., Lai, D., Ma, C., & Tsien, T. (2016). Feasibility Study on Introducing a Voucher Scheme on Residential Care Services for the Elderly. Report submitted to Labour and Welfare Bureau, HKSAR Government

Chow, N.W.S., Wong, Y.C., Chan, W.S., Ho, K.M., & Bai, X. (2014). The future development of Hong Kong retirement protection (in Chinese). Report submitted to Commission on Poverty, HKSAR Government.

Chow, N.W.S., Wong, Y.C., Chan, K.S., Bai, X., & Chan, H.H. (2013). A study report on the social security system in Macau (in Chinese). Report submitted to Fundo de Segurança Social (FSS) de Macau.

Chow, N W.S., Wong, Y.C., Chou, K.L., Ko, P.K., Lee, V., Bai, X. (2011). A feasibility study on introducing a new scheme of support for retired elderly people. Report submitted to Central Policy Unit, HKSAR Government.


Current Research Projects : 

2017 – 2018 (Principal Investigator). Poverty and retirement patterns of ageing adults before and after retirement in Hong Kong: The role of intergenerational relationships. Funded by The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HK$105,000

2017 – 2020 (Co-Investigator). Intergenerational relations, care expectations and subjective well-being of Chinese elderly in the tide of modernization. Funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China, RMB233,000

2016 – 2017 (Principal Investigator). Intergenerational relationship quality and care expectations of ageing parents in Hong Kong. Funded by Research Grants Council General Research Fund - Early Career Scheme, HK$784,285.

2015 – 2018 (Principal Investigator). Ageing Chinese adults’ care expectations and their determinants: A photovoice study in Hong Kong. Funded by Hong Kong Polytechnic University Central Research Grant, Department General Research Fund, HK$256,000.

2015 – 2017 (Co-Investigator). Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems in Hong Kong: The Influence of Family. Funded by Research Grants Council - General Research Fund, HK$988,500


Professional & Community Service: 

Reviewer for Academic Journals

  • Aging and Mental Health
  • Ageing and Society
  • Applied Research in Quality of Life
  • BMC Geriatrics
  • China Journal of Social Work
  • Clinical Interventions in Aging
  • European Journal of Social Psychology
  • Habitat International
  • Health and Social Care in the Community
  • International Social Work
  • International Journal of Social Science Studies
  • Journal of Applied Gerontology  
  • Journal of Asian Public Policy
  • Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
  • Research on Aging


Reviewer for Research Grants and Conference Abstracts

  • RGC Faculty Development Scheme for the Local Self-financing Degree Sector
  • Proposal review for 2016 Aging in America Conference held by American Society of Ageing, March 24-26 2016, Washington, D.C., The United States.


Community Services
Teacher, Life-Long Learning Programme for Older Adults in Hong Kong
Honorary Research Advisor, The Salvation Army
Member, Hong Kong InterRAI
Member, Gerontological Society of America